DISEASE, DESPAIR AND DEATH: A STUDY OF BIOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS OF HENRIK IBSEN’S CHARACTERS IN GHOSTS, A DOLL’S HOUSE AND THE WILD DUCK

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Dr.Rafiq Nawab
Humaira Ikram
Khalid

Abstract

This paper focuses on diseases as biological limitations in Ibsen's plays; a determining force in characters’ lives, behaviour and thought patterns. The biological limitations this paper explores are from a broader perspective that includes the study of over-presence of such biological aspects as disease, desire, despair, suicide and death. The analysis of the very quality of life as lived by the characters has been included in the discussion on biological factors. The relationship between past and present in terms of hereditary diseases and biological limitations has been considered and examined with specific references to the plays Ghosts, A Doll’s House and The Wild Duck. The biological limitations create physical suffering and mental strain for characters and prove to be the unconquerable obstacles in their lives. The hereditary diseases not only end the pleasures of life but also bring Ibsen’s characters to the status of ‘nonbeing’ (meaningless existence). In the face of these limitations, life becomes meaningless and unbearable for them. Consequently, this status of ‘nonbeing’ drives them to drastic and desperate actions. The paper determines that the characters are filled with terrors and frustrations and undertake extreme steps - subsequently ending their lives by committing suicide. This study is a literary research based on textual analysis of primary (text of the plays) and secondary (criticism of the plays) sources, using close reading analytical research design.

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How to Cite
Rafiq Nawab, D., Ikram , H., & Khalid. (2024). DISEASE, DESPAIR AND DEATH: A STUDY OF BIOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS OF HENRIK IBSEN’S CHARACTERS IN GHOSTS, A DOLL’S HOUSE AND THE WILD DUCK. International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(1), 602–615. Retrieved from https://irjssh.com/index.php/irjssh/article/view/136
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