International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2024-07-18T20:33:59+00:00 Saad Jaffar Open Journal Systems <p>International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (IRJSSH) is a peer reviewed International scholarly journal published by Al-Zouq Educational Research Centre. It is dedicated to scholarly study of all aspects of Social Sciences and Humanities. Objectives of IRJSSH are to provide a platform for researchers, academicians, and practitioners to share their research findings and innovative ideas in the field of Social Sciences and Humanities.It is to facilitate communication and collaboration among researchers and practitioners in different regions and disciplines to publish high quality, original, and innovative research papers that contribute to the advancement of knowledge which further affect the overall development of peace in the society.The main objective of the International Research Journal of Social Science and Humanities (IRJSSH) is to offer an intellectual platform to the International scholars and it aims to promote interdisciplinary studies in Humanities and Social Sciences.All manuscripts must be prepared in English and are subject to a double-blind peer review process.</p> EXPLORING THE ABSENCE OF URDU LANGUAGE IDENTITY IN PAKISTANI UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION 2023-12-26T06:42:29+00:00 Kinza Ashraf Badriah Khaleel <p>Investigating the lack of Urdu language identity in Pakistani undergraduate education reveals a significant gap that requires attention. The exploration delves into understanding the factors contributing to this absence and seeks potential solutions to address the linguistic identity concerns at the academic level. The objective of the study is to find out the reason responsible for the missing identity of Urdu language at undergraduate level. A comparative study is made to ascertain which language is source of preference between the government and private college. This study gives an explicit idea about how English language becomes a threat to our identity. A comparative analysis of Kinnaird College and Govt. APWA College will help in finding the comfort zone of people with the languages (Urdu and English). The research design use in this paper is cross sectional study and the appropriate methodology in this research is quantitative in nature. The data was collected through question This study will explore the present scenario of educational system of Pakistan divided into government and private institutions which are in the support of either English or Urdu language.</p> 2024-01-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities NAVIGATING THE LEGAL LANDSCAPE: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC LAW IN PAKISTAN 2024-01-05T13:09:32+00:00 Badriah Khaleel Dr Khalid Ahmed <p>Domestic Violence (DV) persists as a significant social issue globally, encompassing violence against both males and females. This study focuses on domestic violence against women in Pakistan, a pervasive problem escalating in urban and rural areas. In Pakistani society, such violence is often viewed as a private family matter, lacking proper attention to assessment, intervention, and resolution. Women endure daily acts of violence and discrimination, rooted in the misuse of social customs, cultural values, and religious norms. The research aims to shed light on domestic violence against women in Pakistan, exploring its causes, factors, consequences, and proposing Islamic perspectives for solutions. The paper adopts a qualitative research methodology, analysing a comprehensive understanding of the issue and offering potential solutions. The study aspires to be crucial and beneficial for Muslim communities in Pakistan and beyond. It analyses the historical evolution of domestic law in Pakistan to understand its foundational principles, legislative developments and evaluates the effectiveness of legislative mechanisms in addressing contemporary societal issues within the framework of domestic law in Pakistan. Social norms significantly influence how women perceive and respond to domestic violence. In Pakistan, enduring marital abuse is often viewed favourably, while reporting or seeking legal help is met with distrust. Distorted religious teachings contribute to sustaining abusive relationships in Pakistan.</p> 2024-01-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities AN OVERVIEW OF DOMESTIC LEGAL FRAMEWORK RELATING TO HOUSING INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN VIS-À-VIS HOUSING FOR ALL IN PAKISTAN 2024-01-22T19:04:16+00:00 Iqra Ishfaq Dr Shahid Rizwan Muhammad Irfan <p>In order to achieve the goal of housing for all, each UN Habitat member state must assume responsibility for enacting the required amendments to current legislation as well as the introduction of new legislation and policies that are in accordance with human rights. In Pakistan to enforce right to housing there are laws. Analysis of these laws is important because after analysis we would be able to find out grey areas in the laws and search out obstacles in implementation. There are some laws enumerated here which have concern with the right to housing, that which legal framework is adopted and which laws are enforced. Recent reforms in laws relating to housing have been discussed briefly. These reforms are very good that it will solve many problems in the field of housing. This new legislature work has passed but to get fruit from this tree, there is need of enforcement. Laws without enforcement are like tree without fruit. Need of the hour is to enforce these laws in letters and spirit so that the work on “housing for all” could be accelerated.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TWO LEGS GOOD AND FOUR LEGS BAD: DISCOURSE MANIPULATION, FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MARXISM IN ANIMAL FARM BY GEORGE ORWELL 2024-01-23T18:08:49+00:00 Nayab Tabassum Suhail Ahmed Solangi Wirda Murad <p>This study explores manipulative language and power dynamics through a Marxist lens, focusing on the exploitation of working-class animals by humans and pigs in George Orwell's novella "Animal Farm." The application of Marxism to the text unveils the social degradation of animal labor, highlighting the deceptive language employed by the intellectual animals to assert power over others, shaping their perceptions and actions for personal gain. Employing critical discourse analysis, the study contends that those in power, whether humans or animals, exploit their subordinates through manipulative communication, gaslighting individuals to maintain their privileged positions. The pigs' manipulation of language positions them as oppressors, enabling them to rule over the other animals. In conclusion, this research emphasizes that power dynamics and manipulative discourse persist regardless of the species in control.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 ROLE OF PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN GOVERNMENT PRIMARY SCHOOLS: A STUDY OF DISTRICT MATIARI, SINDH PROVINCE, PAKISTAN 2024-02-17T19:13:46+00:00 Hina Rajput Zain ul abdin Rind <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the role of parents’ involvement in government primary schools in Sindh. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from parents and the approach was purely quantitative. To conduct the study, head teachers were selected from district Matiari. The sample size was 100 head teachers from different primary schools of district Matiari were selected randomly and a simple random sampling technique was used to collect the data from the parents. Findings showed that there is no significant difference between literate and illiterate parents. The findings also showed that parents who are involved in children's education were 3.701 and for non-involvement parents 3.200. The results showed there are statistically significant differences (t= -.3000, p= .001). The results also showed that the mean score of parents in rural areas was 2.433, and for parents who belong to urban areas 2.419. The results showed there are no statistically significant differences (t= 1.129, p= .233).From the findings of the study, it is concluded that parents are not fulfilling their roles in children’s primary education. Parents workshops and awareness sessions should be conducted so the parents should in involved in the holistic development of their children.</p> 2024-02-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 ANALYZING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE THROUGH PROJECT BASE LEARNING AT UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS 2024-03-19T17:55:43+00:00 Shumaila Shoukat Dr Hisham ul Hassan Khawaja Rabia Mamoon <p><em>This research focuses on the effectiveness of intercultural competence in the English language while assessing project-based learning. The English language has gained its status as a lingua franca just due to the use of a wide range of people who belong to different territories of the world. As the aim of this study is to examine the perceptions of undergraduate students regarding the integration of project-based learning for fostering intercultural competence, the qualitative method has been used to analyze the data; for data collection, snowball sampling techniques were used to collect the desired data. This esteemed research finds various helpful findings: the EFL learners have enhanced their language proficiency even in divergent intercultural environments and they have been exposed having diverse cultural perspectives in their classroom settings. Not only the students of EFL have increased their cultural sensitivity and awareness but also these cultural sensitivity perspectives helped them to trigger their communicative competence. These concerns auxiliary their motivation and engagement in their learning environment. Furthermore, the effectiveness of intercultural competence in the English language has become the core cause to show on the positive attitude toward diversity. Likewise, the perceptions of the students related to integration of the project-based learning have boosted their intercultural competence.</em></p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 SHROUDED REALITIES: EXPLORING THE VEIL AS A SYMBOL OF OPPRESSION IN FADIA FAQIR'S WILLOW TREES DON'T WEEP 2024-02-26T11:20:15+00:00 Farooq Ahmad Imran Ali Dr. Tariq Usman <p>This qualitative study explores Fadia Faqir's portrayal of veil, in <em>Willow Trees Don't Weep</em>, as a powerful tool of oppression in the Muslim world, drawing on the theoretical insights of Dabashi’s views as articulated in<em> Brown Skin, White Masks</em>. The study analyzes the novel's multilayered portrayal of the veil through thematic analysis, revealing its symbolic significance as a tool of patriarchal control. The study reveals how the use of the veil as a tool for maintaining gender hierarchies and exercising power and Dabashi’s (2011) idea of native informer relate to Faqir's representation of veil. Through close examination of the narrative in which the veil is employed as an instrument of oppression, this study adds to a deeper comprehension of the relationships between gender and power roles in Muslim societies. The study also critically examines the possible outcome of Faqir's narrative decisions, particularly the way in which the veil is portrayed as a tool of oppression used by men. It argues that such portrayal on part of native informers accentuates Western misconceptions about the alleged oppression of women in Muslim societies. The study's conclusion shows that Fadia Faqir’s portrayal of veil in <em>Willow Trees Don’t Weep</em> supports the popular prejudices prevalent in the West regarding Muslim women, calling for a deeper understanding of Muslim women's experiences.</p> 2024-03-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities MORALITY AND POLITICAL ETHICS, AN INEVITABLE NECESSITY FOR SOVEREIGNS AND STATES: KHUSHAL KHAN KHATTAK, S POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY OF ROLE OF MORALITY IN POLITICS 2024-03-01T05:20:02+00:00 Muhammad NoamanYousaf Mahak Fatima Durrani Sehrish Rehmani Jafar Nazir <p>Politics and ethics are co-related to each other. As politics and statecraft are the conduct of humans, so the issue of ethical and moral concerns regarding political decisions and discussions automatically becomes important. Political leaders and decision-makers need to be bound by ethical and moral concerns and constraints regarding their political life and decision-making. Political Philosophers like Aristotle and Plato highly regarded Ethics as a key ingredient of Politics. Plato considered Ethics as a branch of Politics. Islam also emphasizes ethics to play a central role in Politics. Muhammad (SAW) was the best example of an ideal political leader with a profound and high standard of ethical and moral values in his personality as well as in his political decision-making coupled with the system he introduced in the State of Medina. Khushal Khan Khattak has highly emphasized ethics and morality in Politics. He explains it with the perspective of proposing his ideal ruler as the symbol of ethics and politics. He on one hand establishes certain moral standards and qualities for his ideal sovereign, on the other hand, praises Kings with high moral standards by narrating their stories in his book Dsataar Nama. The study is qualitative in nature and content analysis, thematic and discourse analysis of different data has been done according to the need of the topic. The main argument of the study is that in Khushal Khan Khattak, s perspective ethics are inevitable and indispensable in political affairs, conduct of states, governance process, state affairs and concerned with the personality and decisions of rulers. The study is a significant contribution to political thought, academia, think tanks and policy making.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities NATURE OF LAWFARE: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY FOR ANALYZING LAWFARE IN INTERNATIONAL DOMAIN 2024-02-25T18:00:23+00:00 Prof.Dr Gul Hasan Habib Ur Rehman Abdul Basit Mehmoo Ameer <p>This paper examines the lawfare, by analyzing its nature and impact within the international domain. Lawfare or the tactical application of legal procedures and frameworks to accomplish military or political goals, has become a key instrument in modern geopolitics and conflict resolutions. This study tries to clarify the different aspects of lawfare, including its legal, political, and ethical ramification by a thorough review of case studies and theoretical frameworks. In order to provide light on the opportunities and problems presented by lawfare in influencing the dynamics of global governance and security, this research will look at the tactics used by both state and non-state actors as well as the changing role of international law and institutions across the international borders. This study also advances the knowledge of how conflict and diplomacy are changing in the twenty-first century and provides significant information in fields of lawfare in international domain.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE USED IN PAKISTANI PRIME-TIME TV SHOWS NEELAM GHAR AND JEETO PAKISTAN 2024-02-24T13:15:43+00:00 Eman Rasool Lubna Zahid Nimra Abdulkhaliq <p>This research paper based on analysis of language in Pakistani game shows one is taken from the 20<sup>th</sup>-century Neelam Ghar (1975) and the other is from 21<sup>th</sup>-century named Jeeto Pakistan started in 2014. This study is conducted to ascertain how language changes with the passage of time whether its impact is negative or positive. So the language used in both languages will be analyzed and distinguished both results through investigation of the hosts’ communication styles and their attitude toward the audience. The research approach is qualitative. In this study, a purposive sampling approach is used to collect. Primary data is selected from one episode of the Neelam Ghar and one episode from Jeeto Pakistan show. The significance of the present research lies in the fact that it indicates how media and society portray the change of language in the modern world and how language style is different from the language that was used in the 20th century this will be analyzed in this study. “Norman Fairclough’s three-dimension model” based on Critical Discourse Analysis is applied as the research tool. It is recommended that media consider how language contributes to the development of a sophisticated society. The result of this study depicted that Neelam Ghar left positive effects on their viewers and also encourage reading, and education which in turn supported the intellectual community. On the other hand, Jeeto Pakistan needs to be discussed because the host's improvised language can have a negative impact on society.</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPITAL MINDFULNESS AND SUBJECTIVE WELLBEING AMONG POST GRADUATE DOCTORS 2024-02-26T05:39:01+00:00 Kainat khan Saleem Abbas Tuba Kainat Hina Abdullah <p>The purpose of the present was to measure the relationship between Psychological Capital, Mindfulness and Subjective Wellbeing among Postgraduate Doctors. After detailed literature reviews following hypotheses were formulated 1). There would be positive relationship between Psychological Capital and Mindfulness among doctors, 2). There is likely to be that Psychological Capital, Mindfulness and would differ across gender among doctors. The sample of this study was consisted on 200 medical doctors including 100 male medical doctors and 100 female medical doctors. The data was collected from the different private and government hospitals located in Faisalabad. There is no specific age range and the population of the study males &amp; females Postgraduate Doctors of different age group of Faisalabad Hospitals. Psychological capital, mindfulness attention awareness, psychological well-being scale use as instruments in the study. T-Test, Correlation, Regression, was used for data analysis. Results shows significant relationship finding of our both hypotheses. At the end of the implementation of the study, suggestions and recommendation were discussed in detail.&nbsp;</p> 2024-03-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN INDEGNEOUS SELF-ACTUALIZATION SCALE FOR PROFESSIONAL ADULTS 2024-02-27T18:09:32+00:00 Imran khan Shazia Habib Owais Iqbal <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>The study was conducted to develop and validate an indigenous Self-Actualization Scale for professional adults. The mixed method approach was used. The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, data was extracted from explored phenomenon (Irfan &amp; Habib, 2020), focus group discussion, and previous literature (Maslow, 1979). In the second phase, the factor structure was determined. 620 professional adults aged 20 to 45 years (<em>M<sub>age</sub></em>= 31.5; <em>SD</em>= 1.27) were recruited. PCA was used with the Varimax Rotation. 27 items were retained in final scale. In the third phase, the psychometric properties were determined. Data was collected from professionals (<em>N</em>=200), for the convergent and divergent validity, Short Index of Self Actualization Scale (Palmira &amp; Saimona, 2015), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Daniel et al., 2005) were used. EFA revealed three-factors named self-Awareness, Self-Realization and Self-Control. The Cronbach’s Alpha value (<em>α</em>=0.97). The psychometric evaluation finding revealed (r=0.69<sup>**</sup>) with Short Index Self- Actualization, and (r= -0.57<sup>**</sup>) with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. The overall results revealed that SAS is a psychometrically valid and reliable measure.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong>Phenomenology, Self-Actualizations, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Construct Validity. Principal Component Analysis.</p> 2024-03-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL BASED RADIO PROGRAMS ON THE ADOPTION OF INNOVATIONS BY THE FARMERS OF SARGODHA AND KHUSHAB DISTRICTS 2024-03-09T07:51:28+00:00 Asghar Ali Gill Muhammad Kaqbad Alam Dr Muhammad Kamran Khan <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;">The study investigates the effects of agricultural-based radio programmes on the adoption of innovations by the farmers of Sargodha and Khushab districts regarding the diffusion of innovations in the agriculture sector through different radio programmes. A detailed study was conducted on the farmers of Sargodha and Khushab districts using a sample of 300 respondents, comprising 150 farmers from Sargodha and 150 farmers from Khushab districts. The sample was selected using the triangulation method by combining stratified and purposive sampling techniques. The findings of the study revealed that the farmers who listened to the agriculture-based radio programmes adopted new farming methods as compared to those who did not tune into such programmes. The findings of the study further revealed that radio played major role in getting the respondents’ minds to adopt various innovations from agriculture programmes in Sargodha and Khushab districts. On the other hand, listeners do not significantly prefer confirmation of adoption regarding innovations.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities IMPACT OF MOBILE PHONE USAGE ON LIFE STYLE OF YOUTH IN PAKISTAN A CASE STUDY OF NAROWAL 2024-03-09T07:44:08+00:00 Dr Muhammad Kamran Khan Hamas Tariq Maria Yousaf <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate the "Impact of Mobile Phone Usage on the Life Style of Youth in Pakistan (A Case Study of the University of Narowal)". Data collection has been done using the survey approach. 200 respondents, 100 men and 100 women between the ages of 18 and 30 were chosen from the University of Narowal student body using convenient and purposive sampling. The findings show that generally speaking, most respondents would rather use their mobile phones to fulfill their needs than television or other media. They observe mannerisms as well and discover that they greatly influence their cultural patterns. In addition, viewers think that Pakistanis are primarily to blame for the current fashions in Indian movies.The results also show that Indian films have an impact on the language, attire, festivals, way of life, music, and eating practices of the local populace.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities COMPARATIVE STUDY OF QUALITATIVE ADJECTIVE INFLECTIONS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS IN ENGLISH AND ASTORI DIALECT OF SHINA LANGUAGE: A MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS 2024-03-16T16:35:32+00:00 Altaf Hussain Irshad Hussain <p>The study is a morphological analysis in order to explores similarities and differences of adjective inflections and their functions in English language and in Astori dialect of Shina language. Inflections of adjectives have been taken as the stand point of this study. Findings of the study revealed that Shna is highly inflected language as compared to English. &nbsp;Adjectives in English are inflected to show the degrees (comparative, superlative). On the other hand in Shina, to express degrees like comparative and superlative, separate words are used as; “dango”, “lawo dango”, “pooroneo dango” here the words “lawo” and “pooroneo” show the degrees but the inflections “ngo” shows the masculine gender. The study revealed that in Shina it is necessary for&nbsp; adjectives to agree with the noun they describe and follow, that is, they need to agree with the noun in gender and number. For example, if the noun that follows an adjective is singular and masculine, the adjectives , most of the time, take the inflection “-o”, as in “dudooro” ( masculine singular circular), and if the noun is masculine and plural, the adjective takes the inflection “-ay” as in “dudooray” (masculine circular plural). When the noun, which is being modified by an adjective, is feminine and singular, the adjective takes the inflection “-i”, and when the noun is feminine and plural, it takes the inflection “-iye” as in “naayi” for singular feminine (new) and “naaiye” for feminine plural (new).</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities THE REVIEW OF THE ARCHITECTURAL LANGUAGE OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 2024-02-21T17:43:44+00:00 Dr.Aman Ullah Syeda Arfa Quddusi <p><em>The tourism sector is one of the flourishing sectors in Pakistan that is generating revenue due to its natural beauty and landscapes. However, there are a few factors that need to be attention to gain better outcomes in this sector. The role of language cannot be forgotten in this regard but the significance of architecture and its ability to communicate has no comparison. This paper aims to investigate the impact of architectural language on sustainable tourism by conducting a literature review. The outcomes of the study showed a positive influence of architecture and its language on tourists and the phenomenon of tourism. </em></p> <p> </p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities MAJOR POLITICAL FAULTINESS AND POLITICAL LANDSCAPE OF PAKISTAN 2024-03-06T07:54:22+00:00 kishwar Naheed <p>Numerous faultlines and complexity that have forever altered Pakistan's history influenced its political destiny. These faultlines, which have their origins in racial and geographic differences fueled conflicts over the allocation of resources, representation, and autonomy. Power confrontations between civilian administration and the powerful military institution have been sparked by the ebb and flow of civil-military relations, which have been defined by military interventions and coups. The threat of terrorism and religious fanaticism coexist, necessitating a careful balance between security precautions and addressing the root causes. Pakistan has endured serious crises amid these faultlines, including democratic transitions that were overshadowed by military operations. A cycle of credibility issues for political leaders and institutions has been maintained by issues with corruption and poor governance.Another layer of difficulty is added by the province of Balochistan and its uprising for independence and the respect of linguistic rights. The Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf focuses on social justice and anti-corruption measures, the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz, is well-known in Punjab, and the Pakistan Peoples Party, which supports the weak and marginalised, are important groups that shape the political landscape. These parties express the need for representative government amid the intricate interaction of faultlines. The path to democracy in Pakistan is robust in the face of obstacles. Despite the hiccups, electoral power shifts reflect the public's desire for democratic representation. Persistent economic issues poverty, inflation, and shoddy infrastructure need for all-encompassing remedies. This article provides a view into Pakistan's complex political environment, which is marked by rifts and changing dynamics.</p> 2024-03-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities CHILDHOOD TRAUMA AND MOOD STATES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MAINSTREAM SCHOOL CHILDREN AND CHILD LABORERS 2024-03-29T05:13:20+00:00 Dr. Arif Nadeem Imran Khan Khadija Nadeem <p>The current study aimed to investigate the association between childhood trauma and mood states in children and to compare child laborers and non-working/mainstream school children concerning childhood trauma and mood states. For this purpose, a sample of 400 boys (mainstream school children=200; child laborers=200) in the age range of 6-16 years (<em>M</em>=12.03; <em>SD</em>=2.03) was selected through a purposive sampling technique from the Faisalabad district, Pakistan. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire <strong>(</strong>Bernstein, et al., 1994) and the Mood Questionnaire (Rieffe et al., 2002) were used for data collection. Data analysis was carried out through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v-25). The Pearson product-moment correlation and regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between childhood trauma and mood problems, as well as childhood trauma, appeared to be a significant predictor of mood problems in the participants. Furthermore, in the <em>t</em>-test, child laborers significantly scored higher on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and negative mood states (i.e., anger, sadness, and fear) whereas, they scored lower on a positive mood state (i.e., happiness) as compared to mainstream school children. Based on the current findings, the implications of the study and suggestions for future research were discussed. </p> <p> </p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTION REGULATION AND CYBER VICTIMIZATION AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS “ROLE OF SELF-DISCLOSURE” 2024-04-13T14:43:19+00:00 Ummul- Baneen Aqsa Abdul Khaliq Novera Obaid Qazi <p>This study investigates the intricate interplay between emotion regulation strategies and cyber victimization among university students, with a focus on the moderating role of self-disclosure. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional regulation and cyber victimization among university students. A quantitative co-relational research study with a simple random sampling technique was used for this purpose. It was hypothesized that there was significant relationship between self-disclosure and cyber victimization among university students. A sample of two hundred and Ninety One University students was selected with demographic information i.e. gender, age, and education. Results indicated emotional intelligence (EM) indirectly lowers cyber victimization (CV) through self-disclosure (SD).Emotional Regulation scale (Gross and john, 2003), Cyber Victimization scale by (Riaz &amp; Hassan, 2018) and Self-Disclosure Questionnaire (JSDQ; Journal, 1971) was used. Analysis was conducted using statistical software such as SPSS 25. The finding will be beneficial for further research, as well as the implications of the findings and the study’s limitations are also used.&nbsp;</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 FINANCIAL REPORTING FOR STEWARDSHIP: EVIDENCE FROM CONVENTIONAL VERSUS ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES 2024-04-06T15:07:00+00:00 Riaz Tabassum Husnain Mubashar Fraz Ashraf Khan <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the evidence of Stewardship for financial reporting from the conventional and Islamic accounting practices. This study hits the two basic issues. Firstly, whether the Stewardship should be considered as a separate objective of financial reporting and secondly, whether Stewardship should be considered as a primary objective of financial reporting or not. After detailed discussion from the conventional and Islamic perspective of financial reporting, this study concludes that Stewardship should be considered as separate objective because Stewardship has major implication for the qualitative characteristics of financial reporting. Further, this study demonstrates that Stewardship should be considered as primary objective of financial reporting rather than decision usefulness. The study offers guidelines for financial report preparation that include information about financial reports from an Islamic perspective, how to incorporate an Islamic perspective into financial reporting, and additional literature to help future researchers delve deeper into this topic.</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION AT OLD FORT MANSEHRA: A PRELIMINARY REPORT 2023 2024-03-27T05:35:14+00:00 Shakir Ullah Abdul Samad Ruth L.Young Paul Neuson <p><em>The archaeological exploration conducted by the Department of Archaeology, Hazara University, Mansehra, in collaboration with the Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and the University of Leicester, UK, under the Pak-UK Education Gateway program, aimed to document the British period Archaeology and Heritage of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The focus was on the Old Fort Mansehra, a significant site constructed during the Sikh era and later occupied by British colonial forces. The excavation utilized modern techniques such as topographic mapping using Total Station and employed the Wheeler Technique for grid layout and trenching.</em><em>Pre-excavation activities involved meticulous surveying and topographic mapping to ensure accuracy in documenting the archaeological features. The excavation revealed significant findings, including coins dating back to the Indo-Parthian and Early Kushan periods, indicating occupation as early as the 1st century CE. Iron objects, pottery sherds, and other artifacts were also unearthed, shedding light on the daily lives and cultural influences within the fort. Stratigraphic analysis helped establish the sequence of occupation periods, indicating continuous habitation from ancient times to the present. The fort exhibited a blend of architectural styles reflective of Sikh and British periods, serving as a military, administrative, and cultural center.</em><em>The excavation enriched our understanding of the historical dynamics of the region and its transition from Sikh to British control. The findings contribute to the broader historical narrative of South Asia, emphasizing the complex interactions between different cultures and political powers over time. Further research, conservation efforts, and public engagement initiatives are recommended to preserve and showcase the excavated remains and artifacts, ensuring the site's historical significance is properly understood and appreciated.</em></p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities PAKISTAN'S CLIMATE CHANGE ACT: EVALUATING IMPACTS, EFFICACY, AND PROSPECTS FOR FUTURE PROGRESS 2024-04-17T18:35:53+00:00 Rana Umair Abrar Khan Dr. Rao Qasim Idrees Ali Shahid <p>Pakistan's Climate Change Act of 2017 represents a significant milestone in the country's efforts to address the challenges posed by climate change. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the Act's implementation, effectiveness, and impact on Pakistan's climate policy landscape. Through a systematic analysis of key components, including implementation mechanisms, enforcement frameworks, institutional support, stakeholder engagement, and effectiveness in achieving stated objectives, this study offers valuable insights into the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement within Pakistan's climate governance framework. The evaluation of implementation mechanisms reveals the importance of robust institutional arrangements, administrative structures, and coordination mechanisms in driving forward climate action. Effective enforcement frameworks and compliance levels are identified as crucial factors in ensuring adherence to environmental standards and regulations. Institutional support and stakeholder engagement emerge as critical drivers of broad-based participation and ownership of climate policies, highlighting the need for inclusive decision-making processes and mechanisms for public participation and feedback.Furthermore, the study assesses the Climate Change Act's effectiveness in achieving its stated objectives, including mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, enhancing climate resilience, and mainstreaming climate considerations into development planning processes. Progress towards emission reduction, renewable energy deployment, ecosystem resilience enhancement, and mainstreaming of climate considerations is evaluated to provide a comprehensive picture of the Act's impact on Pakistan's climate policy landscape. Overall, this study underscores the importance of continuous evaluation and adaptation in climate policy. By identifying areas for improvement and opportunities for enhancement, it aims to inform evidence-based decision-making and catalyze action towards a more sustainable and climate-resilient future for Pakistan and its people.</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities ELECTORAL PERFORMANCE OF JAMAAT-E-ISLAMI IN PAKISTAN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ELECTIONS 2013 AND 2018 2024-04-17T18:17:26+00:00 Muhammad Safdar Hussain Dr. Asia Saif Alvi <p>Elections serve as democracy's cornerstone, reflecting the will of the populace. In Pakistan, where religious parties wield influence, Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) holds a prominent position. This paper explores JI's electoral performance in the elections 2013 and 2018, blending data analysis and qualitative examination. It dissects JI's strategies, strengths, and vulnerabilities amidst evolving Pakistani politics, analyzing campaign messaging, coalition dynamics and grassroots mobilization. Additionally, it scrutinizes JI's ideological alignment with voters among competing narratives, aiming to unveil its adaptability and political relevance. The study deepens understanding of Islamic political movements in Pakistan, shedding light on their role within the democratic framework and offering insights into religion, politics, and governance in Muslim-majority societies. Through systematic comparison and critical evaluation, it contributes to nuanced comprehension and facilitates informed discourse on Pakistan's political landscape. Ultimately, by assessing JI's trajectory, this paper illuminates broader implications for democratic processes and religious-political dynamics in diverse contexts.</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities THE IMPORTANCE OF PRINCIPALS’ LEADERSHIP STYLES IN CREATING TEACHERS’ JOB SATISFACTION: A STUDY OF PRIVATE PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KARACHI 2024-04-07T08:21:01+00:00 Alia Faruqui Uzma Atif Jafri Afsheen Fatima Atif Aziz <p>The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the leadership styles of principals and the job satisfaction of teachers in private primary schools in Karachi. The study was designed to identify the leadership styles practiced by principals of the schools and the relationship between their leadership styles and the level of job satisfaction of the teachers, respectively. The data was collected by using the Survey method from the selected sample comprising 300 primary school teachers from renowned schools. Data collection was carried out through questionnaires and it was presented by SPSS. The major findings revealed that transformational and transactional leadership are positively related to teachers’ job satisfaction, in addition, Principals' Decision-making and Teachers' Job Satisfaction have a positive relationship.&nbsp;</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities IMPACT OF PERCEIVED CHILD REARING PRACTICES ON INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS. A MEDIATED MODERATION MODEL OF REJECTION SENSITIVITY AND ATTACHMENTS 2024-04-17T18:03:30+00:00 Aqsa Sharif Aqsa Abdul Khaliq Dr. Umbreen Khizar <p>The aim of the study was to examine the impact of Perceived Child Rearing Practices on Intimate relationships through mediated moderation model of rejection Senstivity and Attachments. There will be significant relation between Child Rearing Practices, Intimate Relationships. In total, 288 married couples between the ages of 20 and 60 took part in the study (144 men and 144 women). The candidates were chosen from Pakistan's small cities of Vehari and Khanewal. An online survey was carried out using a Purposive sampling technique, and a consent form was connected to the questionnaire that was created using Google Forms. Married couples completed out 288 questionnaires did so. Perceived child Rearing Practices is positively significant in males with Intimate relationships. Child rearing practices is positively significant with rejection senstivity and rejection senstivity is positively significant with intimate relationships in males. Results also show that child rearing practices is positively significant in females with intimate relationships and rejection senstivity. The findings revealed a favourable correlation between child rearing practises, intimate relationships, rejection sensitivity, and attachments. Intimate relationships and rejection senstivity positively correlated with each other in males and females However, t-test analysis showed that the demographic variables differ in terms of the influence of child rearing practises on intimate relationships. This study contributes to the body of knowledge already available in the field of motivational psychology and can be utilized to guide future research projects.</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities UNVEILING HERITAGE PERCEPTIONS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AUTHENTICITY AT UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE AND NON-DESIGNATED SITES IN LAHORE 2024-04-24T06:59:53+00:00 Muhammad Taimur Sarwar Sana Hafeez Dr. Najma Kabir <p>This research paper investigates the shifting perceptions and experiences of visitors at culturally significant heritage sites within Lahore's urban fabric, focusing on the Lahore Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the Wazir Khan Mosque, an important architectural landmark. As tourist numbers increase and both designated and non-designated sites face challenges of preservation and restoration, understanding the factors influencing visitor perceptions becomes crucial. The study examines the impact of authenticity, preservation efforts, and visitor management strategies on the perceived value and authenticity of these sites. Through a comparative analysis of visitor experiences and perceptions at both designated and non-designated sites, the research aims to uncover nuanced insights into the dynamics shaping heritage tourism and management strategies in Lahore. By elucidating these factors, the study contributes to the discourse on heritage conservation and tourism management in rapidly evolving urban contexts.</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON JOB PERFORMANCE IN HOSPITALS OF KARACHI 2024-04-07T08:24:44+00:00 Afsheen Fatima Uzma Atif Jafri Alia Faruqui Atif Aziz <p>In today’s competitive period, every organization is trying to excel its performance. To work in a highly competitive and fast changing environment there is a need of highly adaptive leaders that can encounter challenges and help their subordinates to face and tackle those challenges. Leadership is the process of one man influencing the group of people and directing them towards their goal. Organizations always strive for new strategies and approaches to lead their employees in order to manage and enhance their performance. The aim of current study is to examine relationship between transformational leadership style instrumental leadership style, transactional leadership style and Participative leadership style on job performance. The data were collected from the employees of hospitals by using the Survey method from the selected sample comprising 300 primary school teachers from renowned schools. Data collection was carried out through questionnaires and it was presented by SPSS. The major findings revealed that transformational leadership style instrumental leadership style, transactional leadership style and participative leadership style to employee’s job performance of hospitals.&nbsp;</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF CRITICAL RISK FACTORS IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PAKISTAN 2024-04-24T17:07:11+00:00 Muhsin Azam Imran Ghafoor Chauhdhry Afed Ullah Khan <p>This study systematically identifies and analyzes risk factors in construction projects. A review of the literature yielded a list of 34 risk factors, which served as the foundation for empirical research. The survey's reliability was confirmed by a high Cronbach's Alpha score of 0.895, indicating internal consistency. The descriptive analysis identified "High Inflation/Increase in Prices" as the factor with the highest rating (mean score 4.04). "High Inflation/Increase in Prices (RII = 0.73151)," "Shift in Political Leadership (RII = 0.63014)," and "Delayed Payment on Contract (RII = 0.62192)" were the top-ranked risk factors, according to the Risk Index of Importance (RII). Prioritization based on occurrence frequency was followed by Pareto analysis. The study concluded with cluster analysis, which classified 66 respondents according to their risk attitudes and behaviors. According to a probabilistic analysis, "High Inflation/Increase in Prices" has the highest likelihood of occurring in future construction projects. This study provides useful insights for proactive risk management and strategic planning in the construction industry, allowing for informed risk mitigation and project success.</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVE DISORDERS (ADHD) SYMPTOMS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL CHILDREN OF PRIVATE SCHOOLS, KARACHI PAKISTAN 2024-04-07T10:05:40+00:00 Syeda Hina Rizvi Maryam Moula Bakhsh Dr Khizer Hayat Atif Aziz <p>The aim of the study is to identify the frequency of&nbsp;&nbsp; ADHD symptoms and its association with Academic Performance among secondary school children of Private Schools, Karachi, Pakistan. Analytical cross sectional study was conducted among 280 students who are at their adolescence, duration of the study were 3months. Participants with age range 13-16years were selected. Data were collected using Wander Utha Rating scale (WURS). SPSS software version16.0 was used to assess frequency &amp; % for &nbsp;categorical and qualitative variables. Chi square test was used to find out the association of ADHD Symptoms with the risk factors such as Gender, Class/Grade, Birth order, Previous Grade/Academic Performance, Parent smoking history and No. of siblings. Out of 280 respondents, 152 (54.3%) were male and 128 (45.7%) were female. Majority of the students (n=160, 57%) were 14 and 15 years of age..Findings of the study revealed academic performance and parents smoking history shows significant association with the presence of ADHD Symptoms by showing P-value 0.015 and 0.017 respectively. Findings of the study conclude that in private schools of Karachi Pakistan, most significant association with the prevalence of ADHD symptoms are smoking history of parents and the students’ academic performance.</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities NEXUS BETWEEN MICROFINANCE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN PAKISTAN 2024-05-02T15:48:20+00:00 Rajab Hussain Roohi Ahmad <p>It seems that there are significant connections between microfinance and climate change. The proliferation of small enterprises is having an effect on environmental circumstances and climate change, as well as creating more business prospects for them through microfinancing operations. The escalating commercial operations necessitate a greater consumption of water and power to carry out production and manufacturing tasks. Growing commercial activity is another factor contributing to the global warming that is occurring. However, the release of greenhouse gases is also a contributing factor to harsh weather patterns and increased temperatures. In addition to having an effect on the agricultural sector of the economy, excessive water consumption and glacier melting are also contributing to sea level rise, which poses a hazard to both individuals and farmers. Floods are becoming more likely in both rural and urban regions due to increasing sea levels and the excessive melting of glaciers brought on by global warming. As such, there is a direct correlation between the rise of small enterprises and the alteration in the climate. Small businesses thus take precautions to reduce their influence on the climate, but the growing number of commercial operations can still have a negative impact on the global climate. The Hindu-Kush Himalayan region's population is especially susceptible to climate change-related food insecurity due to inadequate infrastructure, restricted access to international markets, geographic remoteness, low productivity, and susceptibility to hazards (IPCC, 2019). Due to extended droughts and more frequent floods, farmers in this area are experiencing lower agricultural yields and a rise in food insecurity (Hussain et al. 2016; Manzoor et al. 2013). These days, climate change amplifies natural disasters including drought, forest fires, floods, and landslides. The unsustainable levels of poverty and opportunity inequality in Pakistan will be significantly worsened by changes in monsoon patterns, an increase in hydropower projects, and ill-planned rural road projects. Policymakers must take immediate action to adapt to and mitigate the effects of climate change at the household and micro business levels. If policy limits money, microfinance can be a key player in promoting such best practices. By offering loans and other financial services, microfinance assists rural residents in creating assets, diversifying their sources of income, and managing risks. By expanding these activities through policy and community level initiatives, there is a great chance to benefit from financial innovations including risk insurance, microfinance, conditional cash transfer programs, and targeted subsidies. Mitigation and adaptation strategies, however, are insufficient to stop the negative effects of climate change; loss and damage (L&amp;D) measures are becoming more essential and necessary. A comprehensive multi-level governance is therefore required. Concrete implementation of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage linked with Climate Change Impacts (2013) necessitates the backing of state policies and mechanisms. We demand the implementation of a top-down as well as a bottom-up strategy to address L&amp;D in Pakistan in a more thorough manner, drawing on the example of Bangladesh. This policy paper aims to persuade policy makers to act swiftly in order to develop and execute policies that effectively address the effects of climate change in order to promote social and economic advancement.</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN PAKISTAN 2024-04-30T13:32:28+00:00 Asma Shafi Dr.Muhammad Ramzan Sheikh Rabbia Aslam Fiza Asif <p>This study focused on the impact of government expenditures on economic growth by using the ARDL technique for the period of 1990-2020. Results show that government expenditures will positively affect economic growth across a variety of channels. Government investment can boost economic activity by providing public goods, which are a key component of aggregate demand. Furthermore, ensuring fair income allocation may affect economic development by the mechanism of taxation and transfer payments. Government spending aids in maintaining law and order in the region, which is needed for long-term economic development. Furthermore, government expenditures on constructive projects such as physical and human infrastructure can increase productivity, and government spending through its relationship with the private sector can increase production directly or indirectly (Asghar et al 2012).</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities MARXIST PERSPECTIVE OF CLASS CONFLICT IN MOHSIN HAMID’S MOTH SMOKE & HOW TO GET FILTHY RICH IN RISING ASIA 2024-05-02T16:43:39+00:00 Afshan Saleem Ali Raza Chhalgri Baloch Irfan Ali Abro <p><em>Marxism is one of the most important literary theories that studies the social historic factors in a literary work. It is very vast theory with many dimensions to cover. The current study is based on novels analyzed through textual evidence. The aim of study is to reveal the socioeconomic issues of time in which both novels, Moth Smoke and How to Get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia, were set under Marxist perspective of Class conflict. The analysis is done by applying the two methods of Peter Barry Model (1995) in the texts of the both selected novels, firstly, deals with overt and covert themes of novels and secondly, to know the nature of literary genre in term of its social time period, in order to find out various class issues which include the supremacy of elite class over the people of lower class, and unequal opportunities of job for the people of lower class, moreover, to answer the question of other social issues of Pakistan in the shape of corruption, unemployment, poverty, drugs usages, lack of quality education etc. Marxist criticism explores the writer’s consciousness about the social-historic facts and appreciates how writers make these factors the part of literature. There are many overt incidents in the novels that relate to covert situations. Marxist critics dig out these overt situations and then connect them with covert happenings of the time. For example, the economic suffering of the characters of the novels was connected with the economic downfall of Pakistan such as in the case of Moth Smoke’s Protagonist Daru and unnamed boy who struggles to be wealthy person of society in How to Get Filthy Rich in Rising Asia. Barry (1995) suggests this method of study for Marxist analysis and same is applied in this study.</em></p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF SIGNIFICANT DELAY FACTORS IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS 2024-05-10T18:49:03+00:00 Rasool Niaz Khan Muhsin Azam Imran Ghafoor Chaudhry <p><em>Construction delays have a significant impact on private and public sector projects in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study analyzes data from 73 industry professionals to identify key delay factors in construction projects. Delay reasons were categorized into six groups: Contractor-Related, Design-Related, Labor-Related, Management and Administrative, Financial and Payment-Associated, and Technical Elements. Cronbach's Alpha confirmed the reliability of survey data, thereby supporting valid conclusions. Descriptive statistics revealed a range of impacts, some with higher means and greater variability than others. The RII method ranked these elements, with the political situation (RII = 0.7068), contractor payment delay (RII = 0.7041), and consultant design team experience (RII = 0.6904) being the most influential. Pareto Analysis emphasizes the importance of addressing these factors to effectively mitigate delays. Cluster analysis revealed three types of delays: resource and communication issues, design and decision-making complications, and other variables, emphasizing their interconnected nature. Network analysis visualizes the interactions between delay factors, providing insight into their complex interplay. </em></p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities PERCEIVED GENDER STEREOTYPE AND QUALITY OF MARRIAGE IN MARRIED WOMEN: MEDIATING ROLE OF SELF-SILENCING 2024-05-07T08:02:39+00:00 Amna Rehman Faran Muhammad Laila Mukhtar Kinza Batool <p>The current study examined the intervening role of self-silencing between the relationship of perceived gender stereotypes and quality of marriage among married women. Cross-sectional research design was employed and a purposive sample 180 married women with the age range of 23-36 (M = 29.12, SD = 5.45) from Rawalpindi and Islamabad was recruited. Data was collected using Urdu versions of Gender specific belief scale [1], Silencing the self-scale [2] and Marital Quality Scale [3]. The results of Pearson product moment correlation analysis showed perceived gender stereotype significantly was positively correlated with self-silencing while significantly negatively associated with quality of marriage. However, self-silencing was also found to be significantly negatively associated with the quality of marriage in married couples. Results of mediation analysis through Structural Equation Modeling indicated that self-silencing significantly mediates the relationship between gender stereotype and quality marriage among married couples. The study underscores the vital role of addressing perceived gender stereotypes and promoting assertive communication in improving marital quality among married women, particularly in indigenous cultural contexts.</p> 2024-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities PAKISTANI UNDERGRADUATE ESL LEARNERS’ PERCEPTIONS REGARDING THEIR DIFFICULTIES IN ESL WRITING 2024-05-26T05:34:09+00:00 Rashid Ahmad Shah Muhammad Younus Farid Ayesha Israr <p>Errorless writing has been a phenomenon in the ESL context because writing is a difficult and challengeable task, especially for Pakistani ESL learners. They face such difficulties in writings due to a lack of knowledge, and skills. These difficulties and challenges are influenced due to certain reasons such as lack of prior knowledge, concertation, insufficient skills, untrained teachers, poor strategies of teaching, inappropriate methodologies, and lack of practice in this regard. This study attempts to investigate the perceptions of Pakistani undergraduate ESL learners regarding the difficulties they face in ESL writing. Using a survey questionnaire, the data for this study was collected from 279 Pakistani undergraduate ESL learners from two public and two private sector universities in Pakistan using the convenience sampling technique. The results revealed that the Pakistani undergraduate ESL learners faced several difficulties in ESL writing including lack of appropriate vocabulary, making meaningful sentences, finding the exact expressions, correct usage of active/passive voice and conditional sentences, and coherence and cohesion. The findings have important implications for ESL teachers, trainers and material developers.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 THE INFLUENCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND TEAM BUILDING ON PROJECT SUCCESS 2024-05-28T21:36:43+00:00 Wajid Ali Abdul Zahid Khan Dr. Noor-ul-Amin Imran Munawar Qureshi <p>This research examines the relationship between emotional intelligence and project success, with team building serving as a mediator. The study's specific context is project-based organizations. To investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence project success and team building. The identification of team building as a mediator between emotional intelligence and the achievement of project success. The data was obtained through the administration of a questionnaire to a sample of 350 employees who were engaged in various projects across multiple minor venues. The data were analyzed using SPSS-23. The findings suggest a positive correlation between emotional intelligence and project objectives. The Emotional Intelligence and team building is statistically significant (r = .276**), indicating a favorable relationship between Project Success (r=.180**). The results indicate a statistically significant between Team Building and Project Success (r=.266**). This study aims to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence, team building, and project success, specifically focusing on the indirect effects indicated by the coefficient value. In their research findings, it is authoritative top management to recognize the significance of project managers who possess emotional intelligence and acknowledge their valuable contribution to the overall success of projects. Projects that possess emotional intelligence have the ability to effectively address and manage the negative emotions and stress experienced by team members. Managers who possess emotional intelligence demonstrate the capacity to effectively manage and control their emotions when challenged with complicated situations in the workplace. The ability to articulate emotions facilitates enhanced and efficient communication between project managers and their team members. Emotional expressiveness leads project managers to establish teamwork, which leads to project success. Additional mediator variables, including on work satisfaction, trust, and self-efficacy, are expected to be identified in future research.</p> <p> </p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities UNLEASHING INSIGHTS: EXPLORING THE NEXUS BETWEEN FUNDING LIQUIDITY RISK AND BANK RISK TAKING IN PAKISTANI BANKS THROUGH THE GENERALIZED METHOD OF MOMENTS (GMM) TECHNIQUE 2024-06-05T18:31:17+00:00 Kehkashan Nizam Dr. Noreen Hassan Sunain Qamar <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: black;">This study examines the effects of funding liquidity risk FLR and liquidity risk LR on bank risk taking BRT in Pakistan </span>in Pakistan before and after financial crises through an application of system GMM model. The study focuses on the funding liquidity risk and BRT behavior in developing economies (Pakistan). Bank deposits indirectly fund banks which mitigates liquidity risk, less attention has been paid to the context of the Pakistani banking system.The study selects the banking sector of Pakistan. Data was collected from banks listed in state banks of Pakistan from the period of 2007 to 2017. The study applied System GMM model to the data analyzes.&nbsp;The outcomes show that the increasing in bank's taking of risk when decreasing FLR and increasing LR. Our result also showed that BRT is decreased by increasing FLR and decreasing LR. The chances of Bank de-fault are increased by lower Funding of Liquidity and increases in LR without financial crises respectively. The results revealed there is negative effect of Bank Activity on BRT this means that banks are less influence by crises due to their activities and banks have many opportunities to mitigate their risky activity to less risky activity.To generalize and enhance the information for the banker, policymakers as well as practitioners. P<span style="color: black;">reviously unidentified factors of risk, specifically their influences on BRT contribute to the view in support the more liquidity securities hold than in the past.</span></p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities DISEASE, DESPAIR AND DEATH: A STUDY OF BIOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS OF HENRIK IBSEN’S CHARACTERS IN GHOSTS, A DOLL’S HOUSE AND THE WILD DUCK 2024-05-26T05:06:33+00:00 Dr. Rafiq Nawab Humaira Ikram Khalid <p>This paper focuses on diseases as biological limitations in Ibsen's plays; a determining force in characters’ lives, behaviour and thought patterns. The biological limitations this paper explores are from a broader perspective that includes the study of over-presence of such biological aspects as disease, desire, despair, suicide and death. The analysis of the very quality of life as lived by the characters has been included in the discussion on biological factors. The relationship between past and present in terms of hereditary diseases and biological limitations has been considered and examined with specific references to the plays<em> Ghosts,</em> <em>A Doll’s House</em> and <em>The Wild Duck</em>. The biological limitations create physical suffering and mental strain for characters and prove to be the unconquerable obstacles in their lives. The hereditary diseases not only end the pleasures of life but also bring Ibsen’s characters to the status of ‘nonbeing’ (meaningless existence). In the face of these limitations, life becomes meaningless and unbearable for them. Consequently, this status of ‘nonbeing’ drives them to drastic and desperate actions. The paper determines that the characters are filled with terrors and frustrations and undertake extreme steps - subsequently ending their lives by committing suicide. This study is a literary research based on textual analysis of primary (text of the plays) and secondary (criticism of the plays) sources, using close reading analytical research design.</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities INDUSTRIALISATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGENERATION: A CRITIQUE OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICS IN FRED STENSON’S WHO BY FIRE 2024-05-16T05:12:27+00:00 Muhammad Ijaz Minhas Dr Farah Hashmi Sajad Khan <p>This research study aims to examine the consequences of industrialization on the human and non-human life of the surrounding places. Likewise, it explores degrees of loss of environment caused by national and transnational industrial units. On one side, such syndicates accumulate more revenues from resource-rich regions while on the other inflict environmental and cultural degradation. Moreover, this study is intended to evaluate the resistance of the local community, specifically the women, against such industries. Such industrial corporations operate on the patterns of transnational corporations of the Global North and consider local communities as their ‘other’. For such reasons, this study is premised, theoretically, on investigating existing relationship between industrial units and the local communities. In this context, theoretical underpinnings of postcolonial Eco-criticism seem plausible for this investigative study. The study interprets Fred Stenson’s <em>Who by Fire</em> (2014) for a critical understanding of industrialization, its impacts on environment and strategies of environmental politics of impacted communities. The study finds that industries are established in resource-rich geographies to enhance their revenues. They exploit natural resources and inflict environmental degeneration upon these geographies. In addition, it explores women’s strategies of environmental politics to protect their resources and environment from further degradation.&nbsp;</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities THE SHIFTING HUES OF SELF: A MAGICAL REALIST EXPLORATION OF IDENTITY AND THE POLITICS OF REPRESENTATION IN THE LAST WHITE MAN BY MOHSIN HAMID 2024-06-09T19:29:47+00:00 Mahnoor Amir Mohsin Iqbal Warsha Arshad <p>This study explores the intersection of reality and magic in literature, emphasizing their roles in various genres. For this purpose, the study aims to investigate the significance of magical realism within the novel <em>The Last White Man</em> (Hamid, 2022) and identify the components of magical realism presented in the novel. The researcher[s] travels through the territory of magical realism as explained by Wendy B. Faris's key essay in “Magical Realism (theory, history, community)” presented by Faris (1995), analyzing the novel's plot progression, character dynamics, and thematic intricacies. The study examines how magical realism functions within <em>The Last White Man</em>’s (Hamid, 2022) <em>narrative structure</em> by utilizing Faris's theoretical framework. The study claims that Hamid's novel, which is positioned as a critique of how marginalized people are treated in modern society, encourages readers to consider the pursuit of equal rights. The researcher[s] reveals the novel's thematic foundations through a thorough study of primary and secondary sources using qualitative and interpretive approaches. The argument that <em>The Last White Man</em> (Hamid, 2022) uses magical realism as a primary method of a literary technique used to question social mores and customs. Hamid challenges established power structures and societal hierarchies by fusing supernatural and mundane elements, forcing readers to face difficult realities. The goal of this research is to provide new light on Hamid's influence on contemporary literature and his skill at challenging social structures. The researcher[s] hopes to shed light on the subtleties of its application and demonstrate the transforming power of literature in upending deeply held ideas and promoting empathy by analyzing the book through the perspective of magical realism.</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities ENVIRONMENTAL DEVASTATION IN SINDH AND THE PURSUIT OF JUSTICE FOR ITS SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS AMID CLIMATE CRISIS 2024-06-06T18:06:22+00:00 Mujeeb Rehman Khuhro Abdul Razzaque Mirani Mazhar Aftab Jokhio <p>The impacts of climate change are obvious in the present times as it has been devastating the most of the regions all around the world whether in terms of heat waves, forest fires, change in weather patterns, severe rainfalls, deadly draughts etc. Through this research paper, the focus will be on explaining environmental issues of the province Sindh of Pakistan in regards to going global climate change considerations as it has been proved lethal to Sindh. Firstly, it identifies and evaluates the reasons for environmental degradation, and, secondly, it also explains the repercussions of disaster in the region, as climate change and other impacts and stimuli for internal displacement, heat waves, and water shortages. The paper also has an objective to try to catch the basic understanding of the climate change legislation on national and International level with prospect of how Pakistan is working under the hood of the UNFCCC- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The paper also tries to analyze the availability of legislations whether these legislations are sufficient to safeguard people from the havoc caused by climate change or if there is still need for the legislations to deal with the environment problem so far as Sindh’s climatically vulnerable population is concerned, noting though there are policies and laws to ensure Sindh as the victim of climate change but it is yet to see that how much Sindh government and other related stakeholders are committed to understand and implement whole change.</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Global Citizenship Education: A pedagogy of peace, coexistence, acceptance and prosperity in Sindh, Pakistan 2024-06-06T11:39:57+00:00 Noor Hussain Shar <p><em>Keeping in view the present socioeconomic conditions of Sindh, Pakistan and the existing quality of teaching in Government schools, this article justifies the use of global citizenship education as a transformative pedagogy. The paper justifies the use of critical global citizenship education to prepare the learners' identities at the intersection of local, national and global. Moreover, this paper suggests the use of Blackmore’s(2016) pedagogical framework for Global citizenship education which implies that the learners use critical thinking, dialogue and reflection. This framework includes the dimensions of critical thinking, dialogue, reflection, and responsible being/action. The components of the suggested frameworks have practical relevance in the context of developing learners' identities. Wherein, critical thinking is about knowing our assumptions and assessing their accuracy, dialogue is a prerequisite for critical thinking because it allows learners to engage with others having different opinions and reflection is considered a regular exercise for all ordinary people. Transformative pedagogies create conditions for developing identities of teachers and students in relation to one another, where knowledge is constructed in the participation of educators and learners, and the process of identity formation is like "being-in-becoming” </em><em>(Farren, 2016, p193)</em><em>.&nbsp; The paper suggests that developing learners' identities assigns teachers a critical role, where teachers facilitate interpretation of the concepts of GCE and its practices; hence, it becomes crucial to explore how teachers conceptualise GCE, what pedagogies they use and provide the learners with the opportunities to use critical thinking, dialogue, and reflection. </em></p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Effects of COVID-19 vaccination on aerobic and anaerobic athlete's performance 2024-06-08T18:42:17+00:00 Saadullah Shamshaid Ahmed Ubaid Ullah Muhammad Hamza <p>The global response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has emphasized the paramount importance of vaccination in mitigating transmission and reducing the burden of the disease. However, the ramifications of COVID-19 vaccination on the physical performance of athletes, particularly concerning aerobic and anaerobic activities, remain an area of ongoing investigation. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to discern the effects of COVID-19 vaccination on the performance metrics of both aerobic and anaerobic exercises in a cohort comprising 40 healthy adults aged 18 to 40 years. Our findings indicate that COVID-19 vaccination was associated with modest declines in both aerobic and anaerobic performance among individuals engaged in regular exercise regimens. Notably, reductions in key parameters such as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak heart rate (HRpeak), and peak power output (PPO) were observed following vaccination, with changes ranging from approximately 4% to 8%. Despite these alterations, the clinical relevance of these findings remains uncertain, as the observed changes are unlikely to significantly impact the overall health or fitness of the participants. While the precise mechanisms underlying the observed performance decrements post-vaccination warrant further elucidation, they are likely attributed, at least in part, to the immune response elicited by the vaccine. Consequently, future research endeavors should strive to comprehensively delineate the pathways through which COVID-19 vaccination influences physical performance, as well as to devise strategies aimed at mitigating any potential adverse effects on athletic training and competitive outcomes. While COVID-19 vaccination appears to exert some influence on aerobic and anaerobic performance metrics, the observed decrements are relatively minor and may not present significant impediments to athletes' overall fitness levels or competitive prowess.</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Gender Gap In Political Knowledge of University Students in Lahore 2024-06-07T08:20:56+00:00 Itba Tehreem Huzaifa Shakeel <p>It has been seen that women participate less in more advance democracies then man. Does It indicate that they have less political knowledge or political interest towards that? To know either it actually exists or not here we investigated the hypothesis that gender predict high or low political knowledge. Considering knowledge gap hypothesis, the current study aimed to explore that the female is less knowledgeable than man. Quantitative questionnaire methodology was used in current study. &nbsp;For this purpose, a sample of 150 students from different universities of Lahore was collected by random convenient sampling. Gender equality in access to political knowledge is an important thing for the creation of inclusive and sustainable society. Empirical Findings depicts that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between gender and political knowledge. In addition to this, age is also a significant factor that contributes much in having or possess interest towards political knowledge. Besides these men found to be more interested, more knowledgeable toward politics as compared to their counterparts’ females. Like media, socioeconomic factors also play a foremost role to enhance political knowledge, it has been seen in this study that people with low socioeconomic status have less knowledgeable about political controversies or activities as compared to those with high socioeconomic status.</p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong>Political knowledge, Knowledge gap, Gender, Sustainable Society</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities The Nexus Between Capital Structure And Dividend Policy: Literarture Review And Contemporary Gaps 2024-06-13T06:25:16+00:00 Faheem ul Hussain Dehraj Niaz Hussain Buriro Najamuddin Budh Akhtar Ali Buriro <p>This paper reports on a systematic literature review that focusing on the firms major two corporate finance decisions about the nexus between the optimal capital structure and dividend policy. By the review of extensive literature review search from the different search engine database, we identified 45 articles that address the issues in this context. Since the optimal level of both the capital strcutre and the dividend policy is a major challenge for the financial managers which ultimately affects the financial value of both firms and its shareholders. Therefore it has been proved that firms reached its optimal level when its marginal benift equal to its marginal cost or firm should declare dividend only when having no deficit of internal funds and should finance its business operation firstly either through retain earning secondly through debt and finally can issue the shares. Further in this context the gaps of research areas were highlighted in the conclusion section those needs futher research work in the future</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities EMPOWERING MINDS, TRANSFORMING FUTURES: ADVANCING MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THROUGH ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN PAKISTAN 2024-06-13T16:27:53+00:00 Imran Hussain Dr. Rubina Rahat Tahira Parveen <p>The current study is anticipated to unearth the role of English Language Teaching (ELT) course outlines in advancing multiple intelligences among English Language Learners (ELLs) of Pakistan at primary level. In addition, it is also intended to figure out assorted layers of multiple intelligences and how these are nurtured through course contents among ELLs. To accomplish his intentions, the researcher has utilized a qualitative approach to analyse the data and to pencil in the upshots. Data has been extracted from course insides or outlines of ELT taught at the primary level all over Pakistan under SNC. For that, purposive sampling technique has been implied. Howard Gardner (1983) theory of multiple intelligences (MIs) has been manoeuvred as theoretical framework for data analysis. To delimit the study, the data has been accumulated from ELT course outlines or contents of only grades IV and V. The findings designate that the ELT course inside is operated as a means to nurture linguistic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, existential, logical mathematical, spatial, naturalistic, musical and bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence among ELLs of grades IV and V. The study is imperative as these stratums of intelligence have maximised ELLs’ cultural, social, emotional, naturalistic, musical, logical, and analytical persona and have authorized their learning into an inclusive and holistic approach.</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities DETERMINING THE AWARENESS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG UNDERGRADUATES (DAI-AI) 2024-06-15T19:53:07+00:00 Iqra Samina Dr. Nazish Andleeb <p>This study focus on the development and validation of determining the awareness and implementation of artificial intelligence tools among undergraduates (DAI-AI), because a standardized instrument for this is less focused specially for my population. The instrument was developed under four factors general awareness, implementation, Attitude toward AI and personal use. In first draft of DAI-AI consist 40 item reviewed by 10 experts for content validity, 16 item with weak validity were exclude from the draft. Data from 131 students were collect on 26 item instrument on five point Likert scale. Data collected through this pilot testing used to ensure the construct validity and reliability of instrument. Construct validity was ensured through exploratory factor analysis and internal validity through confirmatory factor analysis, the calculated scores fulfill the criteria of these validities. Lastly Cronbach Alpha scores were found 0.85 which ensure the reliability of DAI-AI.</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF TEACHING CHEMISTRY VIA ANIMATED VIDEOS 2024-06-15T19:47:23+00:00 Kinza Riasat Dr. Nazish Andleeb Inzamam Ul Haq <p>This study investigates the impact of using animated videos as a teaching tool in secondary-level chemistry education, focusing on students' learning outcomes and motivation. Traditional teaching methods often fail to engage students or explain complex chemical concepts adequately. With their dynamic and visually appealing content, animated videos offer a potential solution to these challenges. The research employs a quasi-experimental design, comparing students' performance and motivation levels using animated videos against those taught via traditional teaching methods. Data was collected through pre-and post-tests, as well as motivation surveys (google form). The research population (N=500) was divided into experimental (N=250) and control (N=250) groups from 20 secondary schools of District Mandi Bha Uddin. The findings reveal a significant improvement in the learning outcomes and motivation of students exposed to animated videos. Specifically, students demonstrated better retention of knowledge, higher levels of understanding of abstract concepts, and increased motivation toward chemistry. This study underscores the efficacy of animated videos in enhancing both educational achievement and student engagement in secondary-level chemistry, suggesting their broader application in science education. The animated videos had both visual-pictorial and auditory-verbal capabilities. This and the fact that students were engaged in active learning can explain the positive and high correlation between thinking skills and motivation to learn chemistry among the experimental students.</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities RASOOL BAKHSH PALEJO'S POLITICAL SERVICES DURING THE ZIA ADMINISTRATION FOR SINDH AWARENESS 2024-06-21T19:30:00+00:00 Dr. Muhammad Bahar Khan Dr. Muhammad Aslam Faiz Abadullah Tariq <p><em>For the survival of a nation, among other contrary nations, political awareness is an asset. For this torch-bearerness, nature creates and selects specific personalities. These personalities used to collide against grave challenges and stand against storms. In the history of Pakistan, several martial laws were imposed that tried to drag the country into the Stone Age, but some patriotic personalities rose to tackle this dictatorship. Among these personalities, Rasool Bakhsh Palejo, the founder of Awami Tehreek, was one. General Muhammad Zia ul Haq demolished the whole democratic value imposed by the martial law on July 5, 1977, which checked the state’s progress wheel. So, in the 1980s, against this military dictatorship, the “Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (MRD) was launched. This research paper is an attempt to sketch and discuss the role of political parties as ‘Left’ Socialist or Communist ideologies in Sindh province, “Awami Tehreek,” a Marxist-Leninist Party of Pakistan.</em></p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 ASSOCIATION OF NECK PAIN WITH SCAPULAR DYSKINESIA: CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY 2024-06-21T06:17:23+00:00 Waleed Khan Dr Toufail Ahmad Alia Misbah Saadullah <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This comprehensive study delves into the intricate landscape of neck pain, particularly focusing on individuals aged 50 and above, a demographic where this condition is notably prevalent. The global point prevalence of neck pain is documented at 4.9%, positioning it as the fourth leading cause of disability. The disability-adjusted life years associated with neck pain have shown a noteworthy increase from 23.9 million to 33.6 million between 1990 and 2010. To unravel the nuances of this condition, the study employs a robust correlational cross-sectional design and strategically takes place across several esteemed institutions, including the University of Peshawar, Iqra National University, Sarhad University, HMC, and KTH, over a span of six months, from November 2022 to April 2023. The participant pool consists of 200 individuals, revealing a gender distribution of 41 females and 159 males. The findings underscore the substantial impact of neck pain, with a staggering 94% prevalence among the study population. Furthermore, a significant facet explored is scapular dyskinesis, where 74% of individuals exhibit alterations in scapular position and motion patterns during scapulohumeral movements. Importantly, the study establishes a statistically significant association between neck pain and scapular dyskinesis, evidenced by a p-value &lt;0.05. These nuanced insights contribute to a deeper understanding of the complex interplay between neck pain and scapular dyskinesis, offering valuable implications for targeted management and intervention strategies in clinical practice.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities EVALUATING FDI'S INFLUENCE ON EMPLOYMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH ASIA 2024-05-03T17:21:16+00:00 Rimsha Shafique Khan Dr. Imran Naseem <p>The paper explores the evolution of FDI in South Asian countries over the past decade, its impact on technological transfer, innovation, and economic growth, the influence of regulatory environments and government policies, and its role in addressing unemployment and promoting job creation across different sectors and skill levels. It also investigates geographical variations in FDI effects and their implications for policy. The study aims to contribute to understanding FDI's effects on regional economic growth and provide insights for maximizing its benefits through policy recommendations. Three factors affect how well foreign direct investment (FDI) promotes economic development and job creation in South Asia: institutional quality, human capital, and absorptive ability. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) holds promise for fostering economic growth and employment generation in South Asia. But the effects of FDI differ from nation to nation and depend on a number of variables. South Asian governments ought to enact laws to draw foreign direct investment into high-value industries like manufacturing and technology. To enhance worker proficiency and augment absorbency ability, governments had to allocate resources towards human capital development. Overall, this study sheds light on how foreign direct investment (FDI) affects economic growth and job creation in South Asia and emphasises the significance of organisational quality, human capital, and absorbing ability in maximising the advantages of FDI.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities FACTORS AFFECTING COMPLETION OF CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION IN TEHSIL NARA DISTRICT KHAIRPUR 2024-06-06T13:30:02+00:00 Riaz Ali Faiz Ali jiskani Dr saman Waqar Naqvi <p>Immunization remains one of the most important public health interventions and cost-effective strategies to reduce child mortality and morbidity associated with childhood infectious diseases, but despite amazing progress in reaching more children over the years, many children are still not getting to complete their schedules of routine immunization before their first year of life (WHO, 2009). Childhood Immunization Vaccinations given to children to prevent the development of infectious diseases. The goal of study to determine the Prevalence of childhood Immunization, factors affecting the childhood immunization and determine the Association of childhood immunization and various Socio-demographic factors in Tehsil Nara.A Descriptive Cross Sectional Study was conduct because Factors Affecting Completion of Childhood Immunization in Tehsil Nara the proposed sampling method for this research study is Simple Random probability sampling in district Khairpur tehsils and similarly, the non-probability Convenience in UCs data collection were used. I generate the sample size of my research 384 for sample size; A total of 384 questionnaires will be distributed among the people Tehsil Nara District Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan.Results indicated that childhood vaccination coverage who are received the BCG(79%) , children who are received the Pneumococcal (PCV) (94%) ,DPT(96% ) ,Polio (100%) , Measles(90%) , Typhoid(86%) , and availability of vaccination cards are (78%) completed the immunization in Tehsil Nara District Khairpur. Pearson’s Chi-Squared test for independence was used to check association of childhood immunization and socio demographic characteristics. The overall full basic childhood immunization coverage in Tehsil Nara was still low. Policy makers should Identify children at risk of low immunization coverage and Implement educational interventions targeting on less educated parents, and conduct Mass immunization campaigns for timely and complete immunization.</p> <p> </p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities COMPARISON OF FOREIGN POLICY OF PAKISTAN AND INDIA DURING 2018 TO 2021 2024-05-03T18:43:13+00:00 Annam Malik Tayyaba Jadoon Safa Noor Dr. Imran Naseem <p><em>The article "Comparison of Foreign Policy of Pakistan and India During 2018 to 2021" examines how both countries have navigated key strategic choices and diplomatic maneuvers while navigating South Asia's geopolitical environment. The study sheds light on the subtle differences between Pakistan's and India's foreign policies in the context of evolving global dynamics by carefully examining each one. Through an analysis of regional dynamics, diplomatic tactics, and economic factors, it outlines the distinct routes taken by Pakistan and India at this pivotal time. The finding of the study highlights the various diplomatic efforts, tactical moves, and strategic goals that each nation has used to shape its foreign policy trajectory. In terms of methodology, this research makes use of a combination of comparative frameworks, policy analysis, and diplomatic discourse analysis to decipher the nuances of South Asian geopolitics. This research provides insightful analyses of the strategic environments of Pakistan and India, offering a nuanced knowledge of their positions in the changing global order through a succinct yet thorough analysis.</em></p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities DETERMINANTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE WORST FORMS OF CHILD LABOUR IN DISTRICT PESHAWAR 2024-07-07T16:31:37+00:00 Muhammad Haroon Shaista Noreen Syed Rizwan Ali Shah Ahmed Khan <p><em>This study examines the determinants and consequences of the worst forms of child labor in District Peshawar, emphasizing the challenges faced by children in hazardous work environments and their economic conditions. The primary objectives are to identify the problems encountered by child laborers during hazardous work and to evaluate their economic conditions. To collect the data, open and closed-ended questionnaire was developed, and interviews were conducted with the administration of the Labor Department in District Peshawar. The findings reveal that child laborers face significant health risks, including respiratory issues, injuries, and chronic fatigue, due to unsafe working conditions in sectors such as brick kilns, auto workshops, printing press, Tea Shops, and the steel industry. Economic analysis indicates that poverty is the primary reason, forcing children to work to support their families, thereby sacrificing their education and childhood. The study highlights the urgent need for policy interventions to protect children from hazardous labor and to improve their economic well-being through educational and financial support. Additionally, there is a need for comprehensive strategies to enhance enforcement of labor laws and to promote community awareness about the adverse effects of child labor.</em></p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 UNTANGLING THE THREADS OF COMMUNICATION: EXAMINING THE MULTIFACTORIAL NATURE OF PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT IN KIDS SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 2024-06-06T08:55:08+00:00 Gul Muhammad Sajid Aslam Ayesha Salamat <p><em>This paper explores the complicated network of variables that lead to phonological impairment in children, acknowledging the intricacy that goes beyond mild speech problems. It clarifies the complex nature of phonological deficits, including genetic predispositions, neurological foundations, environmental impacts, and language contexts, through an extensive assessment of the literature and empirical data. The research highlights how biological vulnerabilities and environmental cues interact to shape phonological development by combining several viewpoints from developmental psychology, linguistics, and neurology. In addition, it looks into the effects of early intervention techniques and individualized methods made to meet each child's needs in order to maximize communication results for kids with phonological deficits. The paper opens the door for comprehensive approaches in speech therapy by providing insightful information on the complex fabric of phonological impairment through this multidisciplinary investigation.</em></p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF ULTRASOUND AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING IN THE ASSESSMENT OF ROTATOR CUFF TEARS 2024-07-08T13:18:16+00:00 Ahmad Raza Laamia Altuf Aqsa Wajiha Sohail Khan <p>Rotator cuff (RTC)pathology is the most prevalent cause of shoulder pain in the general population among the several causes of shoulder discomfort, and there is usually a significant morbidity connected to rotator cuff disease, such as rotator cuff tears (RCT).Shoulder discomfort is frequently caused by tears in the rotator cuff. The cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Sheikh Zayed Hospital Lahore from September 12, 2023, to April 26, 2024. The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Ultrasound (MSK-USG) compared with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in identifying rotator cuff muscles.. The Ultrasound evaluation sequences are with the elbow flexed to a 90-degree angle, the biceps tendon was evaluated first. In order to assess any LHBT dislocation from the bicipital groove, the patient is instructed to rotate their arm both internally and externally. Second, with the arm externally rotated and the elbow at 90 degrees of flexion, the subscapularis was evaluated. The patient was asked to abduct their arm in order to assess impingement, internally rotate their arm so that the dorsum of the hand touched their back to assess supraspinatus and infraspinatus, and assess the acromioclavicular joint to rule out arthritis. The MRI Shoulder study protocol was applieed. All participants provided informed consent, guaranteeing their voluntary involvement and privacy and followed the Declaration of ethical guidelines. Patients of various age groups are included in this study, which evaluates 50 patients for rotator cuff problems who had both magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound of their shoulder joint. A total of 50 cases, 32 were males and 18 were females. Age groups 19-34 account for 40% of all cases, while 50–65 account for 23.3% of all cases. These age groups have the greatest number of instances, with a total of 12 cases. A total of 19 cases, or around 63.3% of all cases, had symptoms that had persisted for one to six months. Merely 2.7% of patients had symptoms for over a year in the beginning, which is a very small percentage of cases overall. About 40% cases were Right-handed, and 60% were Left-handed. The rotator cuff tear diagnosis demonstrated a strong negative predictive value (NPV) and good sensitivity.As a result, the ultrasonographer, despite brief expertise with shoulder ultrasonography, demonstrated good sensitivity in identifying tears and certainty in their elimination.</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities MOTHER DEAR AS A POSTCOLONIAL FEMINIST SUBJECT IN MUHAMMAD HANIF’S RED BIRDS 2024-07-03T18:54:58+00:00 Malik Muhammad Ali Hafiza Sana Irshad Shifa Abbas <p><em>After the incident of 9/11, there was an emergence of identity crisis, anxiety and fear and the result was oppression, suppression and marginalization; the gender which faced the most was feminine. This article focuses on the prospects of treatment of women especially in comparison of Third World and First World women with respect to their social class structures. In post-post-colonial era the basic outcome we witness is oppression and identity crisis of women. This article focuses on the character of “Mother Dear as Post-colonial feminist subject” with reference to Mohammad Hanif’s Red Birds. This research is qualitative in nature and data has been collected through close textual reading. Theoretical insights of this article have been taken from Edward Said (1978) postcolonial model and also encompass the concept of feminism and subaltern of Gaytri Spivak, Annie Loomba and Trinh. T. Minha. Mother Dear is the main character of Hanif’s Red Birds. She faces oppression throughout her life as a daughter, as a mother, and as a wife. As far as her description and oppression is concerned, one of her sons was sold by her husband; she was confined to follow socio-religious conventions. There is a comparison of Third World Women and First World Women. How women are treating differently in different parts of the world on the basis of socio-economic status and social class structures. The concept of White Women and Colored women is deeply depicted in the form of socio-economic status, independence, liberty, and identity. Mother Dear faces suppression, oppression and identity crisis throughout her life as compared to Lady Flowerbody. And where there is oppression, the concept of post colonialism and feminism intervenes. </em></p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities THE STRATEGIC USE OF LANGUAGE IN IMRAN KHAN'S POLITICAL SPEECHES: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS 2024-07-10T19:19:09+00:00 Mamoona Malik Tariq Amin Mudassir Inam <p>The paper aimed at analysing the political discourse of Chairman Tehreek-i-Insaaf, Imran Khan from a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) perspective. The purpose of the study was to analyse how Imran Khan manipulates language to trigger his audience, especially youth. The study used qualitative analysis technique. The data were collected from the internet. Speeches of Imran khan delivered by him from 2010 to 2017 were downloaded from the internet. One speech per year was selected for analysis using random sampling technique. Fairclough’s (1989) 3-Dimensional model was used as a theoretical framework. The paper revealed how the leader addresses the youth to raise political awareness and motivate them to work for change in the country. The study found that Imran Khan strategically uses language to appeal to the minds of the young audience for his political purposes. The study concluded that Imran Khan used multiple strategies to persuade the general public. The study recommends conducting a comparative study of the strategies used by different politicians in persuading the public.</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 International Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities CLASHING NARRATIVES IN OPERATION ZARB-E-AZB: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MILITARY OPERATION COVERAGE BY PAKISTANI AND INDIAN MEDIA 2024-07-18T20:33:59+00:00 Ammara Usmani Dr. Zahid Yousaf <p>This study investigates the differences in framing of media coverage across the borders during military operations carried out by Pakistani forces. Given the historical enmity and strategic interests of both Indian and Pakistani nations, the portrayal of such operations significantly varies. Through a content analysis of editorials Dawn, The News, Indian Express and The Telegraph, this study highlights the divergent narratives, biases, and the impact of state policies on the reporting of media. The findings of this study suggest that press in both countries not only replicate but also reinforce nationalistic sentiments and state agendas, calling for more balanced and ethical journalism.</p> 2024-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024